-The term automatic process control came into wide use when people learned to adapt automatic regulatory procedures to manufacture products or process material more efficiently. Such procedures are called automatic because no human (manual) intervention is required to regulate them.
-All process systems consist of three main factors or terms: the manipulated variables, disturbances, and the controlled variables. Typical manipulated variables are valve position, motor speed, damper position, or blade pitch. The controlled variables are those conditions, such as temperature, level, position, pressure, pH, density, moisture content, weight, and speed, that must be maintained at some desired value. For each controlled variable there is an associated manipulated variable. The control system must adjust the manipulated variables so the desired value or “set point” of the controlled variable is maintained despite any disturbances.